The effect of guided self-determination on self-management in persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus and HbA1c ≥64 mmol/mol: a group-based randomised controlled trial
TypePeer reviewed; Journal article
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Objectives: To determine whether the impact of guided self-determination (GSD) applied in group training (GSD-GT) in people with chronically elevated HbA1c and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) was superior to ‘care as usual’ in improving HbA1c and psychological functioning. Setting: An outpatient clinic at a university hospital in Western Norway. Participants: A total of 178 adults (all Caucasian) aged 18–55 (mean age 36.7±10.7, 62% women) with type 1 DM for at least 1 year and HbA1c ≥64 mmol/mol (8.0%) were randomly assigned to participate in either GSD-GT or a control group (CG). Exclusion criteria were severe comorbidity, major psychiatric disorder, cognitive deficiency/language barriers and pregnancy. Intervention: Intervention group met seven times for 2 hours over 14 weeks to promote patient autonomy and intrinsic motivation using reflection sheets and advanced professional communication in accordance with the GSD methodology. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary outcome was HbA1c and secondary outcomes (all outcomes 9 months post intervention) were self-monitored blood glucose frequency, self-reported diabetes competence, autonomy support by healthcare providers (Health Care Climate Questionnaire), autonomous versus controlled diabetes motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), diabetes distress (Problem Areas In Diabetes Scale (PAID) and Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS)), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) and psychological well-being (World Health Organization five-item Well-Being Index scale). Results: Among participants allocated to the GSD-GT (=90) 48 completed the study, whereas 83 completed in the CG (n=88). With 95% CIs GSD-GT did not have effect on HbA1c (B −0.18, CI (−0.48, 0.12), p=0.234). GSD-GT improved autonomy-motivated behaviour (B 0.51, CI (0.25, 0.77), p<0.001), diabetes distress (PAID, B −6.96, CI (−11.40, −2.52), p=0.002), total DDS (B −5.15, CI (−9.34, −0.96), p=0.016), DDS emotional burden (B −7.19, CI (−13.20, −1.19), p=0.019) and self-esteem (B 1.43, CI (0.34, 2.52), p=0.011). Conclusions: Results from this behavioural intervention must be interpreted cautiously because of recruitment and attrition problems. Medical outcomes did not improve. Psychological outcomes improved, especially reduced diabetes distress.
CitationMohn J, Graue M, Assmus J, Zoffmann V, Thordarson HB, Peyrot M, Rokne B. The effect of guided self-determination on self-management in persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus and HbA 1c ?64 mmol/mol: A group-based randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2017;7(6):e013295
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